Soil fertility is the ability to provide enough water, oxygen and necessary nutrients for plants to ensure high yields. At the same time, does not contain substances harmful to the plant. The fertility of the soil, also known as the productive ability of the soil, is a combination of conditions and factors to ensure good plant growth and development.
These conditions are: adequate nutrients needed in an easily digestible form for plants, appropriate humidity, appropriate temperature, air regime suitable for plant respiration and microflora activity. organism, free of toxins and loose soil to ensure the development of the root system.
Therefore, in order to increase soil fertility and obtain high and stable yields, it is necessary to simultaneously impact many factors on the ecosystem of the site. In particular, it is possible to use measures to plant more useful crops to protect and improve the soil. Let's learn more about the crops that increase the fertility of this soil!
1 / Pintoi (Arachis pintoi)
A legume plant capable of symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in the air, they quickly grow biomass (stems, leaves), retain moisture and enrich soil humus. Wild peanuts can withstand nutrient poor soil and extreme weather conditions, so they can be grown in many different regions. Can be planted under fruit trees, perennial industrial crops (pineapple, coffee, pepper), intercropped with corn on sloping land.
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Regarding erosion control, fruit orchards planted with wild peanuts reduced the amount of soil eroded by 72.4% compared to the un-planted control. The beneficial microorganisms (VSV) increase very high under the wild peanuts. Growing wild peanuts helps soil insect ecosystems such as worms and crickets to develop. Day and night "plowing, processing rotting leaves" makes the soil more porous. In addition to being a carpet cover to protect and improve soil, wild peanuts also function as ornamental plants to decorate parks, lawns around the house, flower pots on the street or large pots.
2 / Red bean plant
Imported in Vietnam in 1970, used to intercrop with annual crops or planted in the early period of perennial crops such as coffee, rubber, and fruit trees of all kinds for soil improvement. Plants have good moisturizing effect, limit weeds, help wash off fertilizers, save a lot of materials and labor, reduce production costs, increase profits. In addition to growing for fertilizer and soil improvement, Hong maturity beans also produce valuable agricultural products.
3 / Thai cat bean plant
Imported and experimentally planted in the Central Highlands since 1993. In addition to soil improvement effects (thanks to the relatively high nitrogen content in leaf stalks, about 15-16% of dry matter, about 25-28% of grain protein, and nitrogen from fixed nodule bacteria from the air) cat peas are also a very effective means of killing weeds, including grass. After detoxification, cat pea is also a highly nutritious food for livestock. Some specific applications: intercropping corn / maize with cat peas.
4 / Beans sword
It is a legume tree with upright stem, 2-3 years life, good drought tolerance, large biomass, and many nodules. Plants have a very good effect on soil improvement, can be intercropped, especially in between rows of rice or can be intercropped with cassava, maize.
5 / Peas, beans from Son Tay, fat, jagged
Effect of soil improvement, except weeds, fodder, firewood or stakes for climbing plants. Because of the large tannin content, cattle do not like to eat fresh, but when dried and mixed with other foods, they are a very good source of additional food. It is recommended to use instead of the air reinforcement for the contour line because the plants live longer and give larger biomass.
6 / Tidal beans
Used for food (bean), animal feed (beans, pods, leaves ...). In addition, tidal beans can also be used as firewood or for raising ant wings and have a very good soil improvement effect.
7 / Essence of gas
Work to improve soil and shade seedlings. Concentration is an ideal contour line plant in the early stage of the construction of the farming area. However, in the future, it should be replaced with other plants with more functions or double row planting with other species such as pineapple, grass.
8 / Kutdu tree
Many places are called wild cassava, which is a type of vines that are sown with seeds or cuttings by cuttings planted between rows of rubber or in perennial orchards to cover the soil and cut into green manure.
9 / Double round leaves
Originating from Florida-USA. The tree has the same use as wild peanuts, but double round leaves are more tolerant of difficult conditions. Biomass is not high, but it is also a valuable supplementary food source in winter.
The use of crops that are beneficial for soil improvement will be an effective way to increase the quality of the soil and protect the microbiota in the soil. To increase soil fertility and achieve high and stable yields, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of each beneficial crop and soil conditions to maximize their effects.